Glossary of geological terms
Cae’r Mynach Formation / Ffurfiant Cae’r Mynach
A succession of sandstones, siltstones and mudstones laid down during the upper part of the Ludlow Epoch of the Silurian Period.
Cainozoic or Kainozoic / Cainosoig
Literally ‘recent life’ – the era of geological time which followed the Mesozoic and began at the start of the Palaeogene Period 65 million years ago.
Caledonian Mountains / Mynyddoedd Caledonaidd
A former range of mountains – possibly of Himalayan size – raised up during the Caledonian Orogeny. The range ran through Scotland and northern England, through Scandinavia and the northeastern United States. Sand, mud and pebbles eroded from them formed the Old Red Sandstone.
Caledonian Orogeny / Orogeni Caledonaidd
Mountain-building period which lasted from the Ordovician to the Devonian arising from the closure of the former Iapetus Ocean. It deformed the Silurian and Ordovician rocks of Fforest Fawr Geopark.
Caledonides / Gwregys Orogenig Caledonaidd
The rocks and geological structures associated with the Caledonian Orogeny.
Cambrian / Cambriaidd
Geological period which lasted 54 million years from 542 to 488 million years ago. See geological timescale.
Caradocian or Caradoc Series / Cyfres Caradog
Epoch of the Silurian Period. See Silurian timechart.
Carboniferous / Carbonifferaidd
Geological period which lasted 60 million years from 359 to 299 million years ago. See geological timescale.
Carboniferous Limestone / Calchfaen Carbonifferaidd
The suite of limestones which were deposited during the Carboniferous Period and comprised of several different limestone formations, each of different origin.
Carboniferous Limestone Series / Cyfres y Calchfaen Carbonifferaidd
Subdivision of the Carboniferous Period during which the main limestones were deposited. See geological timescale.
Carreg Cennen Disturbance / Cylchfa Ffawtio-plygu Carreg Cennen
Linear zone comprising geological faults and folds stretching from Carmarthen Bay to the Sennybridge area from where it continues north-eastwards as the Church Stretton Fault Zone (see below). It forms a part of the Welsh Borderland Fault System.
Cennen Beds / Gwelyau Cennen
A succession of rocks laid down at the end of the Ludlow Epoch of the Silurian Period.
Cerig Formation / Ffurfiant Cerrig
Set of mudstones of Telychian age within the Silurian Period.
Church Stretton Fault Zone / Cylchfa Ffawtio Church Stretton
Linear zone comprising geological faults and folds stretching from Church Stretton to the Sennybridge area, continuing south-westwards as the Carreg Cennen Disturbance.
Cil-yr-ychen Limestone / Calchfaen Cilyrychen
Thick formation of limestone deposited during the Carboniferous Period.
Coal Measures / Haenau Glo
Traditional subdivision of the Carboniferous Period. See Carboniferous timechart.
Coed Wenallt Beds / Gwelyau Coed Wenallt
A succession of rocks laid down during the Ludlow Epoch of the Silurian Period.
Cretaceous / Cretasig
Geological period which lasted 80 million years from 145 to 65 million years ago. See geological timescale.
Cribarth Disturbance / Cylchfa Ffawtio-plygu’r Cribarth
Linear zone comprising geological faults and folds stretching from Abercraf area through the mountain which gives it its name and on north-eastwards as the Cribarth Fault towards Brecon.
Crug Limestone / Calchfaen Crug
A limestone formation deposited during the Caradoc Epoch of the Ordovician Period.
Cumbriense Sandstone / Tywodfaen Cumbriense
A thin sandstone laid down during the Namurian Stage of the upper Carboniferous Period and prominent in the Ystradfellte area.
Cwm Graig Ddu Formation / Ffurfiant Cwm Graig Ddu
Mudstone laid down during the Ludlow Epoch of the Silurian Period.